Roche Family Genealogy Blog

My ramblings and sites while on the quest to trace the Roche family history. If you're on the same quest, join the Roche Genealogy mailing list.

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Otho de la Roche, Duke of Athens

Came across Otho and Guy de la Roche in the site prepared by Dan Byrnes - Lost Worlds.

Unfortuntely the information is not attributed to any specific source - so that makes it difficult to validate this information.

1205AD: Crusaders, Duchies of Greece, Conquest of the Morea by William of Champlitte. (Sometimes known as "of Champagne") Earlier, Boniface of Montferrat had done homage to the Emperor re the Kingdom of Salonica, and is made commander-in-chief of the force which will march across Morea and take possession of baronies made possible by the partition. In 1205, one army under Count of Blois and Henry of Flanders, the Emperor's brother, attacked the Greeks in Asia, while the King of Salonica invaded Greece. In time, the title King of Salonica becomes a hollow title. Once the Franks had left, the Greeks of Adrianople rise in revolt, aided by Joannes, King of Bulgaria and Vallachia. Joannes cuts Emperor Baldwin's rescue army to pieces and kills Baldwin. The Bulgarians ravage Greece and the Greeks learn how the cruelty of the Franks can be exceeded. The Franks retreated to Rhedestos. Baldwin's brother, Henry of Flanders, becomes Emperor, crowned 20 August, 1206. In 1205, Otho de la Roche, a Burgundian noble, marches south with the army of Boniface of Montferrat and gains possession of Athens (Lord Athens and Thebes). Shortly, the Burgundian influence at Athens was challenged by a Greek notable, Leo Sgourous, who fought but was forced back to Corinth. Otho de la Roche retains control of Attica and Boetia.

1209AD: Duchies of Greece, Villehardouin becomes "man of the Emperor" and is given office of Seneschal of Romania. Shortly Villehardouin has to negotiate with Venice, then try to outsmart the newly-arriving Robert of Champlitte, cousin of Champlittes already in the area. Meantime, Othon de la Roche encourages the Burgundian influences of France, at the Court of Athens. (Othon marries Isabelle, heiress of Guy de Ray.

1209AD: Duchies of Greece, Henry of Flanders at a small town, Ravenika, calls a high court of his vassals to determine the (French-defined) feudal relations to be transplanted in Greece. Lombards from Italy are trying to make inroads on situations. Thebes is restored to Otho de la Roche. Mark Sanudo is given Naxos as Duke of the Archipelago (of the Aegean). Geoffrey Villehardouin the Younger is made Seneschal of Romania. Raven dalle Carceri has Negroponte.

1225AD: Duchies of Greece: Otho de la Roche Lord Athens resigns government of Athens and Thebes to his nephew Guy, son of Otho's brother, Pons le Ray.

Circa 1264AD: Duchies of Greece: Death of Duke of Athens Guy I de la Roche, who is succeeded by his son John died 1275 (who does not marry). William a brother succeeds John in 1275.

More on the little-known Duchy of Athens: Isabella Villehardouin (died 1311 in Holland) was of "the Duchy of Athens", this Isabella also married Florent II (d.1279) of Hainault and one daughter of Florent II married Guy II (d.1308) de la Roche, Duke Athens. We find amongst the Dukes of Athens (DA), the following: the first Duke of Athens, Guy de la Roche, (d.1263), John (of) Livadio (?) died 1280 succeeded as DA by his brother William; Guy II de la Roche died 1308 was DA; Walter Brienne DA died 1311, Manfred Borrell died young in 1317 was DA; Walter III Brienne died 1333 was DA; William II Borrell DA and Prince Taranto died 1338 was DA; John II Borrell died 1347-48, DA may perhaps be the same as John of Randazzo, DA, (d.1348); Walter II Brienne d. 1356 had failed to recover his duchy of Athens.

1290AD: Duchies of Greece: Death of Duke of Athens William de la Roche, who is succeeded by his son Guy II de la Roche. In 1304, Guy II marries Matilda (Maud) of Hainault, the eleven-year-old daughter of Isabella Villehardouin, Princess of Archaia. Matilda has Kalamata as her dowry.

1308AD: Duchies of Greece: Death of Duke of Athens, Prince Archaia, Guy II de la Roche. Guy earlier has developed a view (unreasonable?) that Philip of Savoy, the third husband of Guy's mother-in-law, Isabelle Villehardouin, holds territories from Guy illegally, so Guy employs mercenaries in the form of ex-members of the Grand Company of Catalans of Cyziko, as led by Fernand Ximines. Guy II has no children and is succeeded as Duke Athens by his cousin, Walter de Brienne. This Walter de Brienne is son of Isabella de la Roche, sister of the Dukes of Athens William and John. Isabella here had married Hugh de Brienne, Count Lecce in the Kingdom of Naples. Walter Brienne the succeeding Duke of Athens continues talks with Fernand Ximines and the Catalan Company, which winters in 1308 at Cassandra. Finlay comments in History of Greece/Trebizond, p. 171, "The expedition of the Catalans in the East is a wonderful instance of the success which sometimes attends a career of rapacity and crime, in opposition to all the ordinary maxims of human prudence". Internal dissension reigned amongst the Catalans, their leaders quarrelled, the chiefs assassinated one another, the troops murdered or banished their generals, yet they won victories. Their leader, Roger de Florez, was assassinated by Greeks. D'Entenza, one of their best chiefs, was murdered by his own troops as the Catalans marched from Gallipoli to Cassandra. Fernand Ximines had to flee. Responsible for some such disturbances was Rocafort, the oldest general in the Grand Company, was finally seized by his own officers, and given to a French admiral who took him to Naples where Rocafort died in prison, starved to death by the Angevines. Other Catalans loyal to Rocafort murdered fourteen army chiefs who had delivered Rocafort to the French. One outcome was that the Catalan Company (about 3500 cavalry and 3000 infantry ) held firmer to certain ideals of Republicanism, and wished to establish permanent territorial dominions in Greece.

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Wednesday, March 30, 2005

Roche Tree

The RocheTree site contains the Roche family tree for the Roche Family of Curraghanearla, Macroom, County Cork, Ireland.

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Wednesday, March 23, 2005

East India Company, Contract

Santhi Hejeebu has published a paper on Contract Enforcement in the English East India Company.

Long-distance trade depends crucially on the enforcement of long-distance contracts, those in which principals are significantly removed from agents. The problem of contract enforcement in the English East India Company, the largest of the English chartered companies, is explored through an analysis of the information environment, the formal employment contract, and the broader relational contract. The relationship between Company servants and Directors reflects a multi-task principal-agent problem, in which servants trade public for the Company and at same time conduct their own private trade. Private trade, sustained by the private use of Company resources, and dismissals were the mechanisms that make East India contract work. Mechanisms which served little purpose were salaries and pre-employment bonds.

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Saturday, March 19, 2005

Calcutta Churches

The following churches are no longer present as quoted in the Goethal's News (Vol. V No. 1 Bulletin January - March 2002) - quoted from Bengal Past & Present. Vol. II, Pt1, Jan-July. 1908. Pages 145-151.

1) St. James Church
It is said to have fallen on Sunday, August 22nd, about 10.20 am.

2) St. Anne’s (consecrated in 1709)
At the south-western corner of Writers Buildings, was destroyed in the siege of 1756.

3) The Old Roman Catholic Church (1720)

4) The Anglican Chapel of St. John (1760)

5) St. John’s R. C. Chapel in Upper Circular Road (1808)
which has after a century been rebuilt.

6) Baptist Chapel (1821), known as the "Ebenezer" Chapel
At Howrah, across the river, and situated near Cullen Place, was removed in 1865 owing to the East Indian Railway Company having acquired the site.

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Tuesday, March 15, 2005

WW1 Campaign Medals

The National Archives has the WW1 Campaign Medals available for search online.

I searched for Roche and found 648 entries - too many to be posted here, so here is the summary.

Catalogue Reference vs #Records
WO 372/5 - 9
WO 372/11 - 18
WO 372/15 - 1
WO 372/17 - 573
WO 372/23 - 25
WO 372/24 - 22

There were eight records that were definitely India related:

Roche, P J - Second Lieutenant in the Indian Army. WO 372/17
Roche, M J - Lieutenant in the Indian Medical Service. WO 372/17
Roche, H - in the Indian Medical Service. WO 372/17
Roche, E D - 1st Class Assistant Surgeon in the Indian Medical Department. WO 372/17
Roche, C A - Captain in the Indian Cavalry. WO 372/17
D'Roche, E - 1st Class Assistant Surgeon in the Indian Medical Department. WO 372/5
Roche, I A - Lieutenant in Gurkha Rifles. WO 372/17
Roche, H J - Lieutenant Colonel in the Jat Light Infantry. WO 372/17

There was an entry in the Royal Engineers (amongst 25 others) that I knew was India related:
Roche, Robert Trivadar Henry - Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. WO 372/17

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Wednesday, March 09, 2005

Weavers, Merchants and Kings in South India 1720-1800

Prasannan Parthasarathi has written a book on the above. A sample chapter of the same is available online - Front matter, Introduction, TOC, Weavers and Merchants 1720 - 1760, Index.

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Baldwin Project

The Baldwin Project page has quite a few excerpts. Here are some of the links:

and a lot more ...

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Genealogy Sites

A few home pages of fellow genealogists

1. Michael Quin-Conroy's family history page.

2. Robert Campbell's Merseyside genealogy page

3. Charlie Clark's family page.

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Friday, March 04, 2005


I was just googling around to see who all have listed Hodson as their reference. Hodson is an excellent source of genealogical information for people researching family in the military in India.

The complete title of the book is

List of Officers of the Bengal Army,

Alphabetically arranged and Annotated with Bibliographical and Genealogical Notices by

Major V.C.P. Hodson

INDIAN ARMY (Retired List)

Author of 'Historical Records of the Viceroy's Body-guard'


Constable & Company Ltd.


As expected I found a few sites of fellow genealogists -

  1. The Muirs Family.
  2. The Dwyer Family.
  3. The JJ Heath-Caldwell Family.
  4. The McCausland Family.
  5. The Baker Family.

Found two Anglo-Indian pages

  1. Dr. Adrian Gilbert's Anglo-Indian page.
Found two military sites -

  1. Seringapatam, 1799.
  2. 19th cent. British & Indian Armies.

Also found some lists of books -

  1. Ian Poyntz's list.
  2. The bibliography of Lola Seymour.
  3. Bibliography from the Aberdeen Department of History.
  4. Source list for Family History at India Office Records.

The one at the University of Aberdeen is excellent, I've listed it below for future reference.


Buckland, C.E., Dictionary of Indian Biography (1906)

Dictionary of National Biography

Farrington, A., A Biographical Index of East India Company Maritime Service Officers, 1600-1834 (1999)

Hodson, V.C.P., List of the Officers of the Bengal Army, 1758-1834, vols. I-IV (1927)

Mehra, P., Dictionary of Modern Indian History, 1707-1947 (1987)

Parker, J.G., The Directors of the East India Company, 1754-1790, (Edinburgh University, Ph.D., 1977).

Riddick, J.F., Who was Who in British India (1998)

Yule, H., A Glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases (London, 1886)


The Oxford History of the British Empire, vols. 1-5 (1998)

Ashton, S., The British in India: from trade to empire (1987)

Bayly, C.A., Rulers, townsmen & bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion (1983).

Bayly, C.A., The Raj: India and the British (1990)

Bayly, C.A., Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780-1830 (1989)

Bayly, C.A., ‘The First Age of Global Imperialism c.1760-1830’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 26 (1998)

Beer, G.L., Origins of the British Colonial System, 1578-1660 (1908)

Bowen, H.V., Elites, Enterprise and the making of the British Overseas Empire, 1688-1775 (London, 1996).

Furber, H., Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800 (1976)

Harlow, V., The Founding of the Second British Empire, vols. 1-2 (1952-64)

Marshall, P.J., ‘Britain and the World in the Eighteenth Century, I & III’ in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th Series, vols. 8 & 10 (1998-2000)

Rose, J.H., The Cambridge History of the British Empire, vols. 1-8 (1929-40).

Seeley, J., The Expansion of England (1891)

Tuck, P. (ed.), The East India Company, 1600-1858, vols. 1-5 (1998).


It is expected that the following be consulted as a matter of routine.

The Annual Register (1758-1858)

British Parliamentary Papers, Colonies: East Indies, vols. 1-11 (Sessions 1805-1832) [Taylor Library]

Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series: East Indies, 1513-1634, vols. 1-5 (1862-92)

The Camden Society

Fort William-India House Correspondence & other contemporary papers relating thereto, vols. 1-21


The Hakluyt Society, series 1-3

Parliamentary Debates.

Parliamentary Papers.

Reports of the Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed to Enquire into

the present state of the East India Company (1830)

Select Documents on the Constitutional History of the British Empire & Commonwealth, vols. 1-2 (1985-



Bassett, ‘Early English Trade and Settlement in Asia, 1602-1690’, in Tuck, P. (ed.), The East India Company, 1600-1858, vol. (1998)

Blusse, L. & Gaastra, F., (eds.), Companies and Trade: essays on overseas trading companies during

the Ancien Regime (1981)

Chaudhuri, K.N., The English East India Company (1965)

Chaudhuri, K.N., The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660-1760 (1978)

Chaudhuri, K.N., Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean (1985)

Chaudhury, S., Trade and Commercial Organisation in Bengal, 1650-1720, with special reference to the East India Company (1975).

Farrington, A., Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia, 1600-1834 (2002)

Foster, W., England’s Quest of Eastern Trade (1933)

Horwitz, H., ‘The East India Trade, The Politicians and the Constitution, 1689-1702’, Journal of British

Studies, 17 (1978)

Kaye, J., The Administration of the East India Company (1853).

Marshall, P.J. ‘The English in Asia to 1700’ in Canny, N. (eds.), Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. I (1998).

Scott, W.R., Constitution and finance of English, Scottish and Irish joint stock companies to 1720 (1910)

Steensgaard, N., Carracks, caravans and companies (1973).


Parliamentary Debates, vol. III, 1694-1703, (1789), pp.105-116

Select Documents on the Constitutional History of the British Empire & Commonwealth, vol. 1 (1985),

pp.234 and 414.

Foster, W., The Voyage of Thomas Best to the East Indies, 1612-1614 (1934).

Markham, C.R. (ed.), The Voyage of Henry Middleton to Bantam and the Maluco Islands (1855).


Armitage, D., The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (2000)

Barber, British Economic Thought and India, 1600-1858 (1975)

Bhattacharya, S., The East India Company and the Economy of Bengal from 1704-1740 (1954)

Bowen, H.V., Elites, Enterprise and the making of the British Overseas Empire, 1688-1775 (London, 1996).

Connors, R., ‘Opium and Imperial Expansion: The East India Company in Eighteenth-Century Asia’, in Taylor, S., Connors, R. and Jones, C., (eds.), Hanoverian Britain and Empire (1998).

Hossain, H., The Company weavers of Bengal, 1750-1813 (1998)

Fry, H.T., Alexander Dalrymple and the Expansion of British Trade (1970).

Jones, C., “A fresh division lately grown up amongst us’: Party strife, aristocratic investment in the Old and New East India Companies and the vote on in the House of Lords on 23 February 1700’, Historical Research, 68 (1995)

Marshall, P., ‘Private British trade in the Indian Ocean before 1800’ in Tuck, P., (ed.), The East India

Company, 1600-1858, vol. IV (1998).

Marshall, P., ‘Private British investment in eighteenth century Bengal’ in Tuck, P., (ed.), The East India

Company, 1600-1858, vol. IV (1998).

Marshall, P.J., ‘The British in Asia: Trade to Dominion, 1700-1765’ in Marshall, P.J., The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. II: The Eighteenth Century (1998)

Nightingale, P., Trade and Empire in Western India, 1784-1806 (1970)

Ormrod, D., The Rise of the Commercial Empires: England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1777 (2003)

Washbrook, D., ‘Progress and Problems: South Asian Economic and Social History, c.1720-1860’, Modern Asian Studies, 22 (1988).

Yalland, Z., Traders and Nabobs: The British at Cawnpore, 1765-1857 (1987)


Anderson, P., The English in Western India: being a history of the factory at Surat, of Bombay, of the subordinate factories on the western coast (1856).

Burnell, J., Bombay in the days of Queen Anne (1933)

Foster, Wm., The English Factories in India, 1618-1664, vols. 1-11 (1906-23).

Hamilton, A., A new Account of the East Indies (1744)

Orme, R., Historical Fragments of the Mogul Empire, of the Morattoes and of English concerns in Indostan from the year 1659 to 1689 (1782).

Wheeler, J.T., Handbook to the Madras Records (Madras, 1907)


Bence-Jones, M., Clive of India (1974)

Chaudhuri, N.C., Clive of India (1975)

Chaudhury, S., The Prelude to Empire: The Plassey Revolution of 1757 (2000)

Dodwell, H.H., Dupleix and Clive (1920)

Edwardes. M., The Battle of Plassey and the Conquest of Bengal (1963)

Lawson, P., & Lenman, B., ‘Clive and the “Black Jagir”: The East India Company in Eighteenth-Century Politics, Historical Journal, 26 (1983).

Marshall, P.J., Bengal: The British Bridgehead (1987)


Gleig, R.G., The Life of Robert, First Lord Clive (1848)

Hill, S.C., Bengal in 1756-57: A selection of papers dealing with the affairs of the British in Bengal during the reign of Siraj Uddaula (1905).

Holwell, J.Z., A Genuine Narrative of the deplorable deaths of the English Gentlemen, and others, who were suffocated in the Black Hole in Fort William, in Calcutta (1758).

Johnson, D., Clive of India: a collection of contemporary documents (n.p.?)

Verelst, H., ‘A View of the Rise, Progress and Present State of the English Government in Bengal’, in Tuck, P., (ed.), The East India Company, 1600-1858, vol. 3 (1998).


Bowen, H.V., Revenue & Reform: the Indian Problem in British Politics, 1757-1773 (1991).

Bowen, H.V., ‘British India, 1765-1813: the Metropolitan context’ in Marshall, P.J., (ed.) Oxford History of

the British Empire: The Eighteenth Century (1998)

Davies, C.C., Warren Hastings and Oudh (1939)

Furber, H., Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, 1742-1811 (1931).

Furber, H., ‘The East India Directors in 1784’, Journal of Modern History, 5 (1933)

Furber, H., John Company at Work: a study of European expansion in India in the late 18th century


Lawson, P., ‘Parliament and the First East India Inquiry, 1767, Parliamentary History, 1, (1982)

Marshall, P.J., ‘The First & Second British Empires: A Question of Demarcation’, History, 49 (1964)

Marshall, P.J., The Impeachment of Warren Hastings (1965)

Marshall, P.J., ‘Economic and Political Expansion: The case of Oudh’, Modern Asian Studies, 9 (1975)

Marshall, P.J,. ‘Empire and Authority in the later Eighteenth century’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 15 (1987).

Mukherjee, R., ‘Trade and Empire in Awadh, 1765-1804’, Past and Present, 94 (1982)

Philips. C.H., The East India Company, 1784-1834 (1961).

Phillips, J., ‘Parliament and Southern India, 1781-1783: The Secret Committee of Inquiry and the Prosecution of Sir Thomas Rumbold, Parliamentary History, 8 (1988)

Sutherland, L., The East India Company in Eighteenth Century Politics (Oxford, 1962).


Gleig, R.G., Memoirs of the Life of Warren Hastings (1841)

Jones, M.E.M., Warren Hastings in Bengal, 1772-1774 (1918)

Marshall, P.J., Problems of Empire: Britain and India, 1757-1813 (1968)

Marshall, P.J., (ed.), The Writings and Speeches of Edmund Burke: Volume V, India: Madras and Bengal, 1774-1785 (Oxford, 1981).

Indian Courier Extraordinary: Proceedings of Parliament relating to Warren Hastings Esq, vols. I-III (London 1796)

Warren Hastings: Selections from the State Papers of the Governor General of India, vols. 1-2 (1910).


Alavi, S., The Sepoys and the Company, 1770-1830 (1998).

Bryant, G., ‘Officers of the East India Company’s Army in the Days of Clive and Hastings’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 6 (1978).

Callahan, R,, The East India Company and Army Reform, 1783-1798 (1972).

Callahan, R., ‘The Company’s Army, 1757-1798’ in Tuck, P., (ed.) The East India Company, 1600-

1858, vol. 5 (1998)

Cohen, S.P., ‘The Untouchable Soldier: caste, politics and the Indian army’, Journal of Asian Studies, 28 (1969) Available at

Heathcote, T.A., The Military in British India: 1600-1947 (1995)

Peers, D.M., “The Habitual Nobility of Being’: British Officers and the social construction of the Bengal army in the early 19th century’, Modern Asian Studies, 25 (1991).

Peers, D.M., ‘Sepoys, soldiers and the lash: race, caste and army discipline in India, 1820-1850’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 23 (1995).

Razzell, P.E., ‘Social Origins of Officers in the Indian and British Home Army: 1758-1962’, British Journal of Sociology, 14 (1963).

Stanley, P., White Mutiny: British Military Culture in India (1998)


Gleig, R.G., Personal Reminiscences of the first Duke of Wellington (1904)

Jacob, J., Tracts on the native army of India: its organisation and discipline (1857)

Lunt, J., ed., From Sepoy to Subedar: being the life and adventures of Subebar Sita Ran (1970)

McCosh, J., Advice to officers in India (1856)

Strachey, H., Narrative of the Mutiny of the officers of the army in Bengal in the year 1766 (1773).


Barnett, R.B., North India between Empires, Awadh, the Mughals and the British, 1720-1801 (Berkeley,


Colley, L., Captives: Britain, Empire and the World, 1600-1850 (London, 2002)

Edwardes, M., British India, 1772-1947: A survey of the Nature and Effects of Alien Rule (1967)

Fisher, M., ‘British and Indian interactions before the British Raj in India, 1730s to 1857’, Journal of

British Studies, 36 (1997)

Hasan, F., ‘Indigenous cooperation and the birth of a colonial city: Calcutta, c.1698-1750’, Modern Asian Studies, 26 (1992)

Hawes, C.J., Poor Relations: The Making of a Eurasian Community in British India, 1773-1833 (1996)

Khan, G., Indian Muslim Perceptions of the West During the Eighteenth Century (1998)

Phillips, J., ‘A successor to the Moguls: the Nawab of the Carnatic and the East India Company, 1763-

1785’ in Tuck, P., (ed.), The East India Company, 1600-1858, vol. 4 (1998).

Ray, R.K., ‘Indian Society and the establishment of British supremacy’ in Marshall, P.J., (ed.), Oxford

History of the British Empire, vol. 2 (1998).

Subramanian, L., Indigenous Credit and Imperial Expansion. Bombay, Surat and the West Coast (1996)

Teltscher, T., ‘Writing home and crossing cultures: George Bogle in Bengal and Tibet, 1770-1775’, in Wilson K., (ed.), A New Imperial History: Culture, Identity and Modernity in Britain and the Empire, 1660-1840 (2004).


The Diary of William Hedges, vols. 1-3 (1887).

The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of the Great Mogul, 1615-1619 (1899)

Hay S., ed., Sources of Indian Tradition, vol. II (1988)

Price, F.J., (trans.), The Private Diary of Ananda Ranga Pillai, Dubash to Joseph Francois Dupleix, 1736-1761, vols. 1-12 (1904-1928)

Ram, S., From Sepoy to Subedar (1970).


Archer, M., India and British Portraiture, 1770-1825 (1979)

Nilsson, S., European Architecture in India, 1750-1850 (1968).

Ballhatchet, K., Race, Sex and Class under the Raj: imperial attitudes and policies and their critics,

1793-1905 (1980).

Busteed, H.E., Echoes from Old Calcutta (1888)

Curtin, P.D., Death by Emigration: Europe’s Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century (1989)

Dalrymple, W., White Mughals: love and betrayal in eighteenth-century India (2002)

Furber, H., Bombay Presidency in the Mid-Eighteenth Century (1965)

Ghosh, S.C., The Social Condition of the British Community in Bengal, 1757-1800 (1970).

Gist, N.P. Marginality & Identity: Anglo-Indians as a racially mixed minority in India (1973)

Harrison, M., Climates and Constitutions: Health, Race, Environment and British Imperialism in India, 1600-1850 (1999).

Kincaid, D.C.A., British Social Life in India, 1603-1937 (1973)

Marshall, P.J., East Indian Fortunes: The British in Bengal in the Eighteenth Century (1976).

Marshall, P.J., ‘British immigration into India in the Nineteenth Century’, Itinerario, 14 (1990)

Marshall, P.J., ‘British society in India under the East India Company’, Modern Asian Studies, 31 (1997)

Poliakov, L., ‘Racism from the Enlightenment to the age of imperialism’, in Ross R., (ed.), Racism and Colonialism (1982)

Raychaudhuri, T., Europe Reconsidered: perceptions of the West in Nineteenth Century Bengal (1988).


The Diary of William Hedges, vols. 1-3 (1887).

Foster, G., A Journey from Bengal to England (1808)

Hickey, W., The Memoirs of William Hickey (1960).

Quinney, T., Sketches of a soldier’s life in India (Glasgow, 1853)

Mackenzie, H., Life in the Mission, the camp and the Zenna (London, 1853)

Mrs Monkland, Life in India: The English at Calcutta (1828)

Williamson, T., The East India vade-mecum: a complete guide to gentlemen intended for the civil, military or naval service of the East India Company (1810)


Bielenberg, A., ‘Irish Emigration to the British Empire, 1700-1914’, in Idem, The Irish Diaspora (2000)

Bryant, G.J., ‘Scots in India in the Eighteenth Century’ in Scottish Historical Review, vol. lxiv (1985).

Brogan, C., James Finlay & Co. Ltd. Manufacturers & East India Merchants, 1750-1950 (1951).

Cain, A.M., The Corn Chest for Scotland: Scots in India (1986).

Campbell, D. (ed.), Records of Clan Campbell in the military service of the Honourable East India

Company (London, 1925).

Buddle, A. with Rohatgi P., & G. Brown, I.G., The Tiger and the Thistle: Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India, 1760-1800 (1999)

Devine, T.M., Scotland’s Empire, 1600-1815 (2003), chapter 11.

Fry, M., The Scottish Empire (2001) chapters 2 & 7.

Keirnan, V., ’Scottish Soldiers and the conquest of India’ in Simpson, G. (ed.), The Scottish Soldier

abroad, 1247-1967 (1992).

Kenny, K., et al (eds.), Oxford History of the British Empire: Ireland and the British Empire (2004).

McGilvray, G., East India Patronage and the Political Management of Scotland, 1720-1774, (Open University, Ph.D., 1989).

Mackillop, A., ‘Fashioning a ‘British’ Empire: Sir Archibald Campbell of Inverneil and Madras’, in Idem and Murdoch, S., (eds.), Military Governors and Imperial Frontiers c1600-1800 (2003)

McLaren, M., British India and British Scotland, 1780-1830: Career Building, Empire Building and a Scottish School of Thought on Indian Governance (2001)

Morgan, H., ‘An Unwelcome Heritage: Ireland’s Role in British Empire-Building’, History of European Ideas, 19 (1994)

Porter, A., ‘Scottish Missions and Education in 19th century India’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 16 (1988).

Riddy, J., ‘Warren Hastings: Scotland’s Benefactor?’ in G. Carnall & C. Nicholson (eds.), The Impeachment of Warren Hastings (1989)

Parker, J.G., ‘Scottish Enterprise in India, 1750-1914’ in Cage, R.A., (ed.) The Scots Abroad, 1750-1914


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